अवर्ण्य सम (balancing the unquestionable)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:4साध्यदृष्टान्तयोर्धर्म्यविकल्पादुभयसाध्यत्वाच्चोत्कर्षापकर्षवर्ण्यावर्णविकल्पसाध्यसमा: अवर्ण्य सम If one opposes an argument by alleging that the character of the subject is as questionable as that of the example, the opposition will be called अवर्ण्य सम (balancing the unquestionable’). An illustration: (1) AV observation is useful (2) Because it is an objectively testable observation (3) Like ‘Saturn and…

कार्य्य सम (Balancing the Effect)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:37 प्रयत्नकार्य्यानेकत्वात्कार्य्यसम: (If one opposes an argument by showing the diversity of the effects of effort, the opposition will be called ‘कार्य्य सम  – balancing the effect’. An illustration (1) AV observation is useful (in determining the chornology, specifically upper and lower bounds on the year of the Mahabharata war) (2) because: Efforts…

उपलब्धि सम (Balancing the perception)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:27 निर्दिष्टकारणाभावेSप्युपलम्भादुपलब्धिसम:  (If an opposition is offered on the ground that we perceive the character of the subject even without the intervention of the reason, the opposition will be called ‘ उपलब्धि सम (balancing the perception)’. उपलब्धि सम  An illustration (1) AV observation is useful (2) because it is an objectively testable observation (3)…

उपपत्ति सम (Balancing the demonstration)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:25 उभयकारणोपपत्तेरुपपत्तिसम: (If an opposition is offered by showing that both the demonstrations are justified by reasons, the oppositions will be called “उपपत्ति सम (balancing the demonstration). उपपत्ति सम An illustration (1) AV observation is useful (2) because it is an objectively testable observation (3) like ‘Venus doing Parikrama near nakshatra Purva Bhadrapada’…

अहेतुसम (Balancing the non-reason)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:18 त्रैकाल्यासिद्धेर्हेतोरहेतुसम: [‘Balancing the non-reason’ is an opposition which is based on the reason being shown to be impossible at all times (and under all circumstances)] अहेतुसम An illustration (1) AV observation is useful (2) because it is an objectively testable observation (3) Like ‘morphodynamic changes to River Sarasvati through geography and time’.…

 वर्ण्य  सम (balancing the questionable)

Nyaya Sutra 5:1:4 साध्यदृष्टान्तयोर्धर्म्यविकल्पादुभयसाध्यत्वाच्चोत्कर्षापकर्षवर्ण्यावर्णविकल्पसाध्यसमा:  वर्ण्य  सम If one opposes an argument by maintaing that the character of the example is as questionable as that of the subject, the opposition will be called वर्ण्य  सम (balancing the ‘describable’/’questionable’). An illustration: (1) AV observation is useful (2) Because it is an objectively testable observation (3) Like ‘Saturn…