Shri Phadnis writes…
“ About what Bhishma said there is no ground for ambiguity.
Current system of naming Lunar months obviously could not have been in vogue until Rashis entered Indian Astronomy. When did they enyer according to Shri. Oak? Specify and quote references pl.
System for catching up Lunar months with Solar year could only have developed progressively. What Bhishma said was probably the starting point with progressive improvements.
I stand by what I have written. “
Shri Phadnis writes..
“About what Bhishma said there is no ground for ambiguity.”
Even I don’t think there is ambiguity regarding what Bhishma said. However, since my interpretation is different than that of Shri Phadnis, we definitely have two interpretations. And only way I know of evaluating multiple interpretations is by putting each proposal to a test.
Likes of S B Dikshit, P V Holay and P V Vartak interpret this specific Bhishma reference (method of taking ~2 adhika masa every 5 years) in the same fashion as I have done. In fact, I did not interpret it at all, but simply employed the method/interpretation assumed by them.
Shri Phadnis insist that Bhishma meant “taking 2 consecutive adhika masa, after 58 lunar months”. This is certainly a novel interpretation and he may be correct and I (along with likes of Dikshit, Holay, Vartak) may be wrong.
It is also true that in a scientific historical research, the validity of a claim is not to be determined by voting, majority or by opinion of authorities or experts.
However, Shri Phadnis has failed to show how the method (of Bhishma), as interpreted by Shri Phadnis is capable of synchronizing Luni-solar calendar.
I wrote the blog article to show why assumption of 2 consecutive adhika masa (intercalary months) after 58 months would not synchronize Luni-solar calendar.
Here is the link:
I request Shri Phadnis to show the errors of my calculations. (in the above blog article, specifically calculations shown under (2)).
Shri Phadnis writes…
“Current system of naming Lunar months obviously could not have been in vogue until Rashis entered Indian Astronomy. When did they enyer according to Shri. Oak? Specify and quote references pl.”
Naming of lunar months has NOTHING (NADA) to do with ‘entering of Rashis into Indian astronomy’.
Lunar months are named based on vicinity of the position of the full moon to a specific nakshatra (e.g. Chitra, Vishakha, Jyestha, etc.) and has nothing to do with ‘Rashis’.
This is true whether ‘Amanta’ or ‘Purnamanta’ system of lunar months is employed.
Current Indian calendar employs sun’s transit through a given ‘Rashi’ in determining when ‘intercalary month (adhika masa) should be inserted and thus all we can say is that the current method of inserting ‘adhika masa’ certainly began after the incorporation of ‘Rashis’ into Indian astronomy’.
As to when ‘Rashis’ entered Indian astronomy, I am 100% ignorant. All I can say is that naming of Lunar months had NOTHING to do with ‘Rashis’.
Naming of lunar months, or at a minimum – validation of a lunar month name is a simple matter of ‘Drik-Pratyay’ (visually or otherwise noting down the position of full moon and nearby nakshtras).
Lunar month names are mentioned in Mahabharata (5561 BCE) and also in Ramayana (12240 BCE).
Adhika masa are mentioned in RigVeda, various Samhitas & Brahmanas (e.g. Taittiriya Samhita, Shatapatha Brahmana, etc.) and also in astronomy Siddhantas (e.g. Surya Siddhanta).
Shri Phadnis writes….
“System for catching up Lunar months with Solar year could only have developed progressively.”
A very likely scenario.
Shri Phadnis writes….
“What Bhishma said was probably the starting point with progressive improvements.”
It is not clear what Shri Phadnis means by “the starting point with progressive improvements”.
All I can assert is that ‘lunar month names’ existed as far back as Ramayana times (12240 BCE) and thus long before Bhishma (5561 BCE).
Concept of ‘Adhika masa’ also existed in RigVeda and thus long before Bhishma.
It would be great if someone enlightens us on the specific method used for insertion of ‘Adhika masa’ in ancient times – RigVeda, Ramayana and Mahabharata.